Fonds de dotation NEVER FORGET BIAFRA



Key dates of the Biafran war


Pogroms against the Igbo, one of Nigeria’s three main ethnic groups, in Jos; hundreds of casualties


Pogroms against the Igbo in Kano; hundreds of casualties

1er october 1960

Indépendance du Nigeria

1er october 1963

The country becomes a federal Republic with three regions: North, East and West. Nnamdi Azikiwe, an Igbo, becomes President

December 1964

Elections. Tafawa Balewa, a Hausa, is re-elected Prime Minister

14 - 15 January 1966

Military coup led by Major Nzeogwu (Igbo). Aguiyi Ironsi, an Igbo, becomes Head of State

May - June 1966

New pogroms against the Igbo in the north: more than 30,000 casualties. The Igbo flee to the East

29 july 1966

Counter-coup: Ironsi is killed and Yakubu Gowon, from a northern Christian minority, takes over as Head of State

18-24 September 1966

New pogroms against the Igbo throughout the federation. More than 20,000 casualties. New Igbo exodus

4-5 January 1967

The military high command meets in Aburi, Ghana, to sign an agreement and end the violence. Gowon will later reject this agreement on the Brits’ advice

26 May 1967

Nigeria is divided into twelve States. The Eastern Region votes to secede. Gowon proclaims a state of emergency

30 May 1967

The Eastern Region declares its independence under the name of Biafra and chooses Enugu1 as its capital. The Regional governor, Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, becomes Biafra’s Head of State

June 1967

Biafra organises its civil defence

6 July 1967

Oil companies operating on the eastern coast decide to do business with Biafra. Nigerian forces launch the offensive against Biafra

14 July 1967

Fall of Nsukka. The Nigerian army plunders the university

26 July 1967

Fall of Port-Harcourt, main Biafran port on the Atlantic, and of Bonny island

29 July 1967

Major Nzeogwu, one of the Biafran officers, is killed on the Nsukka front

9-21 August 1967

Biafran offensive on the Midwest and West. The Biafran army is stopped at Ore, in Ondo State, between Benin and Lagos

22 september 1967

The Nigerian army recovers all territories lost in August

26 september 1967

Biafra’s capital, Enugu, is bombed

4 october 1967

Fall of Enugu

19 october 1967

Fall of the coastal port of Calabar

31 March 1968

Fall of Onitsha, an international market and main port on the Niger. Battle of Abagana, the only great Biafran victory on its own territory: 6 000 Nigerian casualties and 1000 Biafran dead

April 1968

300 Biafran civilians killed in Onitsha cathedral

12 April 1968

Tanzania recognises Biafra

8 May 1968

Gabon recognises Biafra

14 May 1968

Ivory Coast recognises Biafra

19 May 1968

Fall of Port-Harcourt

20 May 1968

Zambia recognises Biafra

June 1968

Federal troops move closer to the last three Biafran towns: Owerri, Umuahia and Aba

31 july 1968

General de Gaulle calls for Biafra’s autodetermination

17 September 1968

Aba and Owerri in the hands of Nigerians

23 September 1968

First French arms shipment to Biafra

1st October 1968

Fall of Okigwe

December 1968

In Biafra, some 14, 000 people die every day (info CICR1)

22 march 1969

Haiti recognises Biafra

22 April 1969

Fall of Umuahia, Biafra’s interim capital

25 April 1969

the Biafran army retakes Owerri

December 1969

Four major Nigerian attacks

9 January 1970

The Nigerian army recaptures Owerri

11 January 1970

Biafra’s Head of State takes refuge in Ivory Coast. Fall of Uli, Biafra’s last air-strip, and cease-fire

12 January 1970

Biafra surrenders

1st October 1982

President Shehu Shagari grants Ojukwu his pardon and allows him to come back from exile

29 May 2000

President Obasanjo commutes to retirement the dismissal of all military personnel who fought on the Biafran side during the civil war

8 September 2005

‘Biafran’ riots in Onitsha{XE "Onitsha" }, involving the National Association of Road Transport Owners (NARTO), the Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra{XE "Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra" }(MASSOB) and the Anambra Vigilance Services (AVS)................ The rest in the section chronology

15 January 2008

The 63 survivors from the group of Nigerian soldiers who had joined Biafran forces in 1967 receive their veteran pension and the pardon of the Head of State

23 August 2020

At least two officers and up to 21 civilians were killed in a clash between Nigerian security forces and members of the separatist group the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) in the city of Enugu, Nigeria. While the final number of casualties and wounded has not yet been confirmed, viral videos posted online show some victims of the clash............ The rest in the section Chronology.
Reflections on the war

“In construction”

Biafran cultures in literature

Press articles
Elle magasineLe biafra et l'effroi27/11/2008
Paris matchRencontre avec le leader indépendantiste du Biafra23/06/2017
La CroixArticle from « la Croix de Marianne Meunier / pages « Rencontrer » - p.10-17 : « Ngozi OKONJO-IWEALA : TRAVAILLER AVEC L’AFRIQUE RELEVE DE LA SOLIDARITE » (Octobre 2020)
Résume by Regina Ubanatu :

On the occasion of her testimoial in this article in the La Croix newspaper of October 2020, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, born in 1954 in Nigeria in Ogwashi Uku (Delta State) and a finalist for consideration as the Director of the World Trade Organization looked back on her journey as a dogged, unrelenting and exceptional woman. Taking up one of the largest and most prestigious international organizations in the world seems obvious to her! This is another of her many challenges, which she will hopefully be able to leverage. She has got all thequalities and skills needed to attain this prestigious position: extremely qualified, with 25 years at the helm of the World Bank, a two time Minister of Finance in Nigeria and more recently named by the NGO Transparency International (2019) as one of the eight most inspiring women fighting against corruption. Nothing could resist her!
Despite Nigeria's negative international image, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala positively projects her birth country: "I don't know of a more vibrant and more exciting country than Nigeria". She owes her doggedness and resilience to the encouragement of a loving and committed father: "As long as you have a head on your shoulders, you have what you need. You will see!”. Furthermore, from of her traumatic experience as an adolescence who witnessed the Nigerian civil war, she rose to become a powerful force: A dark and painful past about which Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala accepted, in this article, to give her frank point of view. The war in Biafra, she couldn’t forget: “What affected me the most was seeing so many children dying of kwashiorkor (a tropical disease caused by malnutrition). And, then there was fear. The bombardments were frequent and very close. My family and I were fleeing from place to place. " During these years of war, she tells us that she walked many kilometers to save her young sister: “My little sister, who was 3 years old, came down with a serious case of malaria. My mother also took ill ... " Not to be discouraged, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala carried his sister on her back to reach a medical center located 5 kilometers from her house! This young sister who, like herself later wished to help others, would eventually become a doctor: “Today my sister is a Doctor, a specialist in infectious diseases. She treats patients afflicted by COVID-19 "
This allows us to a quick peep into theories of determinism! You can be born a black female in a war torn country, suffer from illness and / or physical constraints in childhood, and yet still keep your pride, your dynamism and dignity intact!
For, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, a new page in her life’s storyremains to be written for all our reading pleasure.

October 2020
Forthcoming events
Audiovisual documents
Senghor sur le Biafra00min 52sJT 20H20 Aug.1968M. SENGHOR marchant sur aérodrome - ITW GP de Léopold Sedar SENGHOR sur la tragédie que vir le Biafra (aspect humanitaire et aspect politique) : "on ne peut pas assister à cette lente agonie qui est la leur."Display
La guerre au Biafra01min 58sJT 20H27 May 1968Soldat arrivant à PORT HARCOURT : prise de l'aérodrome et de certains grands bâtiments de la ville.Départ de réfugiés sur les routes : femmes et enfants les paquets sur la tête, foule hurlante dans la rue.Interview d'un délégué de la Croix Rouge qui fait le point sur la situation d'urgence. Il explique ce que la Croix Rouge a déjà mis en place et ce qu'il conviendrait de faire.Display
Famine au Biafra01min 42sPanorama13 March 1969Le gouvernement du Nigéria s'oppose au désir de sécession de sa province orientale : le Biafra . Il utilise non seulement les moyens militaires mais aussi le blocus alimentaire ce qui engendre aussitôt une famine dévastatrice.Images d'enfants dans un dortoir d'un hopital militaire de la Croix Rouge.Display
Manifestation pro Biafra en Allemagne00min 56sJT NUIT17 Aug. 1968Ce reportage (muet) est consacré à une manifestation qui a eu lieu à Berlin Ouest (?), devant l'ambassade d'URSS, en solidarité avec le Biafra, en guerre avec le Nigeria. Les manifestants, parmi lesquels des jeunes et une femme noire portent des banderoles écrites en allemand et en russe. L'URSS est accusée de soutenir le gouvernement fédéral du Nigeria et de lui fournir des armes.Display
Bernard Kouchner à propos de l'aide humanitaire au Biafra01min 16sRésistances30 March 1989Bernard KOUCHNER explique pourquoi lors du conflit du Biafra, un groupe de "French Doctors" s'est désolidarisé des principes de la Croix Rouge Internationale en créant un "Comité international contre le génocide au Biafra" afin d'alerter l'opinion publique : "il fallait être le porte voix de ceux qui n'ont plus de voix".Display
Panique au Biafra 07min 49sJT 20H30 August 1968Point sur la situation de guerre civile au Nigéria depuis la sécession de la province du Biafra en mai 1967. La ville d'Aba, dernière capitale administrative du Biafra, est encerclée par les troupes fédérales. La population civile a quitté la ville pour trouver refuge à Umuahia, où siège le gouvernement du colonel Ojukwu.- Interview du colonel Rolf STEINER (mercenaire) sur la situation.- Interview d'un chirurgien suisse de la Croix Rouge Internationale : les problèmes que la Croix Rouge rencontre face à l'ampleur de la catastrophe et de la famine. - Display
Dernier vol sur Uli-Biafra06min 22sJT 20H15 Jan. 1970Le gouvernement du Nigéria s'oppose au désir de sécession de sa province orientale : le Biafra . Il utilise non seulement les moyens militaires mais aussi le blocus alimentaire ce qui engendre aussitôt une famine dévastatrice . Pour lutter contre cette famine, des DC4 affrettés par la Croix Rouge française chargés de vivres et de médicaments essayent d'attérir, la nuit, au Biafra . But de l'opération, sauver ce qui peut-être encore sauvé . Dans ce reportage, nous suivons "le vol de la dernière chance" d'un DC4 qui quitte Libreville Display
Interview président Croix Rouge sur Biafra02min 47sJT 13H01 Sept. 1968Le président de la Croix Rouge remercie au nom de la Croix Rouge les français de leurs dons pour le Biafra : "Remerciements à ceux qui ont donnés : aux enfants et aux vieux, aux paysans, ouvriers, ingénieurs, médecins. Merci à cette solidarité." Il annonce le départ d'une mission médicale pour le Biafra.Display
Premier reportage sur la région du Biafra06min 27sJT 20H22 Jan. 1970Reportage sur la famine dans la région du Biafra, qui a été réintégrée au Nigéria, et sur la distribution de nourriture dans un camp de réfugiés.Interview d'un Biafrais et de deux médecins de la Croix rouge.Display
Shadow of Nigeria’s Biafra war still looms large, 50 years on15min 49sStuart Dorval 01 Sept. 2017On May 30, 1967, General Emeka Ojukwu declared Nigeria’s southeastern Biafra region an independent state, sparking what would become a bloody civil war that claimed more than one million lives. Fifty years on, many veterans from both sides of the conflict have taken their stories to the grave, but FRANCE 24 managed to meet with some who shared their memories of bravery, desertion and near-death experiences.Display
Guerre de sécession au Nigeria16min 22sPanorama14 July 1967Reportage sur la guerre de sécession au Biafra, état oriental du Nigeria fédéral, avec notamment une interview du colonel Odumegwu Emek OJUKWU.Display
Femmes Igbos du Nigeria 51mn29Lady NGO MANG18 Dec. 2014L’émission Lady vous écoute du 18 décembre 2014 consacrée aux « Femmes Igbos du Nigeria ».
Une très belle émission de la chaine câblée TELESUD nous offre à travers une thématique, rarement abordée dans les médias, la possibilité de découvrir l’Afrique autrement en misant résolument sur ses atouts culturels côté féminins.
Un autre regard du Nigeria incontestablement !